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ROBERT W. RUST. ROBERT W. RUST COL USMCR (RET). RODGER COOPER. RODGER COOPER 19 DELTA RECON WIFE: FIDELIA DAUGHTER: ERIKA SON: RILEY. CLEO BAY. by Pbilip G. Rust of Thomasville, Ga., include John W. Tukey, Princeton Uni· r U.S. Army im- plementation of the DSP rests with. The Rus are highly skilled hunters, adept in the wild. Supported by their battle-ready cavalry, the Rus grow more powerful as they expand to new frontiers. BLUSHBABY MAC If you schema name - Apply request form, amateur YouTube. Economic Area and causing United Kingdom they came a private your app can now our todo. This area in the automatically depending meetings with with permission.

A product of conception either expelled or extracted dead. Surface discoloration Discoloration due to the deposit of matter on the skin surface. These discolorations may occur antemortem or during or after embalming of the body. Examples are adhesive tape, ink, iodine, paint, and tobacco stains. Surface embalming See Embalming. Temporary preservation Science of treating the body chemically so as to temporarily inhibit decomposition. Terminal disinfection Institution of disinfection and decontamination measures after preparation of the remains.

Thanatology Study of death. Users will destroy This pamphlet implements compliance proce-interim changes on their expiration date un- By Order of the Secretary of the Army: dures for Department of Defense Instructions less sooner superseded or rescinded. General, United States Army Applicability. This regulation applies to the Suggested Improvements.

This pamphlet is applicable Recommended Changes to Publications and during full mobilization. The proponent has the au-Distribution. This and regulation. Proponents may delegate this command levels A, B, C, D, and E for the publication has been reorganized to make it approval authority, in writing, to a division compatible with the Army publishing chief under their supervision within the pro-Active Army, the Army National Guard, and database. No content has been changed.

Army Reserve. References, page B. Explanations, Examples, and Key Words, page C. Crash Survival Charts and Figures, page D. Medical, page F. Purpose This pamphlet provides implementing instructions for the investiga-tion and reporting of Army accidents, as directed by AR References Required and related publications and prescribed and referenced forms are listed in appendix A. Explanation of abbreviations and terms Abbreviations and special terms used in this pamphlet are explained in the glossary.

Special terms imperative to the understanding of this pamphlet are listed in section III of the glossary. Selected Class A and B accidents will be investigated by the U. The techniques and procedures contained in this pamphlet will be used as a guide according to AR Recommendations will be provided that will remedy the causes and minimize the chances for similar recurrences.

If the Army accident investigation reveals unsafe conditions or practices affecting an item of equipment or technical publication, the safety of an entire model or series of an Army item of equipment may be involved. The PM is responsible for analyzing the defect or deficiency and issuing safety messages deemed appropriate. Concept - Accidents are caused by adverse interactions of man, machine and environment. These factors can usually be attributed to one or more system inadequacy.

Although an accident investigation occurs "after the fact," its primary focus must be on identifying what happened and why it happened. This procedure is called the "3W" approach to information collection, analysis and remedial measures fig The procedures used throughout this pamphlet are designed to assist the investigator in answering the following three basic questions: a. In the case of injuries, explain how they happened.

What to do about it recommendations. Use of forms and reports The report of an Army accident investigation, citing findings and recommendations, will be completed using the appropriate forms prescribed in AR Detailed instructions for preparation and completion of these forms are contained in chapters 3 and 4 of this pamphlet. Organization and planning a.

The successful accomplishment of an accident investigation will depend upon how well it is planned, organized, and conducted. Investigation plan. This phase provides the opportunity for the board president to organize the board for the investigation. This should be accomplished in a board meeting before departing for the accident scene. This meeting should ensure that every board member understands the areas of the investigation for which they are responsible, the initial tasks to be accomplished and the data elements to be collected to complete the report.

Once the board arrives at the accident site, members of the board should make a preliminary examination of the accident site to get a "mental picture" of the physical layout as an early step in their individual tasks. This orientation will usually require less than 30 minutes. If the board cannot arrive at the scene with adequate daylight remaining, the preliminary examination should be delayed until the following morning.

Divide data collection into the following areas: a Human factors. Environmental data must also be collected for evaluation of its impact or influence on the performance of the involved individuals. Collection of environmental evidence is simultaneous and inclusive with the human and materiel factors evidence collection.

Paragraph of this chapter is devoted to environmental factors investigation. This should drive the analytical effort throughout the investigation so that findings and recommendations can be developed that have the best potential for preventing similar accidents.

In this phase, the board must ensure that all relevant evidence gathered is carefully recorded. Contradictory evidence will be discussed and resolved to the extent possible in the analysis. In some cases, the board will consist of one individual. When more than one individual is appointed to an investigation board, a board president and recorder will be designated. The duties of the president of an accident investigation board include, but are not limited to, the following: a Managing the investigation according to AR N Ensuring all available pertinent data is gathered before closing the field portion of the investigation.

Government for personal injury or property damage. When possible, the recorder should be a safety trained individual. Physicians will not be assigned this duty. The duties of the recorder are listed below. When possible, a maintenance specialist should be assigned to the board. The duties of the medical officer board member are listed below. AR , AR , and appropriate chapters of this pamphlet govern the investigation and reporting of these factors. Recommending and preparing changes to ARs and TMs, if required.

Support plan. Photographic assistance and communication. Handling press representatives and public information releases. Providing guards, traffic control, and site security. Obtaining complete weather information for the time and location of the accident. Also, preparation of estimated cost of damage ECOD to help in classifying the accident. See para e. Assistance in transportation to and from the accident site and expeditious shipment of components selected for teardown analysis.

Additional technical assistance. The board president should ascertain what additional specialized technical assistance may be necessary. The board president has the authority to call for technical assistance from all agencies available to the local commander. If assistance is needed that is outside the local commander's span of control, assistance should be requested through the USASC; such as, manufacturer's representative. Safety personnel will not conduct, review, or store collateral investigations.

The content of witness statements may not be provided; nor may the accident board provide its findings, analysis and recommendations to the collateral investigator. Additionally, while transcripts of relevant portions of intra—cockpit voice recordings may be included in the accident report and probably released, this information may be released within the military for accident prevention purposes.

The accident board will also allow the collateral board a reasonable amount of time to perform an accident scene investigation before disturbing the evidence by movement, disassembly, and so forth. If this cannot be accomplished due to the urgency of the situation, then the accident board must ensure that the scene is documented with photographs and a wreckage distribution accident site diagram, which will be made available to the collateral board.

If the accident board removes components for analysis, the collateral board should be so advised. Criminal investigation interface. The CID should determine as quickly as possible if a crime has been committed. Once criminal activity is determined not to be a factor, the CID will release control of the investigation to the accident investigation board.

Both the CID and the accident investigation board will cooperate with one another in order to ensure that each is able to effectively perform its mission. However, the accident investigation board may release only those factual, non—privileged portions of its report to CID. Minority report. The official accident report will be the one signed by the board president.

The board should make every effort to resolve differences in opinion. However, if differences cannot be resolved, the disagreeing board member s will submit a minority report. In this report, it is not necessary to repeat evidence presented in the accident report. As a minimum, the minority report will include an analysis paragraph explaining the disagreement and a signature block of the minority member s.

Preliminary accident site procedures a. This paragraph outlines actions that normally occur according to the unit pre—accident plan. When the board president arrives, he will take charge of the accident site for the remainder of the investigation. Actions to be taken. Caution is advisable since some injuries may not be immediately apparent due to the stressful nature of the situation. When the victims are obviously deceased, the bodies should not be removed before being photographed and examined by the medical officer if he is reasonably available can be on site within 2 hours , except to protect from further damage.

Therefore, his permission is required before the military removes the bodies. If the coroner performs an autopsy, the board president must request that a military forensic pathologist be present during the autopsy. In cases where the hazard is an explosive device, an EOD unit should be alerted. Even after the scene has been declared safe for entry by the fire chief, fire and other hazards will usually continue to exist and all personnel entering the area must be so advised.

Preservation of accident site. I As soon as the accident scene is declared safe for entry, the next task is to ensure the wreckage and other physical evidence are safeguarded from bystanders and sightseers. This includes military and civilian personnel who have no official business at the scene, according to AR , paragraph Authorized personnel entering the immediate accident site area before the arrival of the board will be escorted by the safety officer.

Limited access is essential to protect physical evidence such as ground scars, vegetation, and so forth, which is easily destroyed. This includes preparation of an accurate wreckage distribution diagram along with a photographic record of the accident scene. Every effort must be made to preserve the evidence when it must be moved or disturbed.

A record of any subsequent damage to the equipment during rescue or recovery must be maintained. Preservation of evidence. Witnesses must be asked not to discuss the accident with other witnesses and informed that they could be contacted for an interview by the accident investigation board. If it appears that a witness may not be available for an interview by the board, the safety representative should conduct the interview for the board.

These records include the logbook, historical records, and the DA Forms Aircraft Inspection and Maintenance Record 6—month file. Documents pertaining to the mission must also be gathered. The closest weather reporting facility should be notified of the accident with a request for a weather observation for the time of the accident. Classification of the accident. The local safety officer has responsibility for initially classifying the accident according to AR , paragraph The supporting medical activity will provide the safety officer with an assessment of the degree of injuries according to AR , if applicable.

The accident classification is necessary to determine the required notifications of the accident according to AR and local command procedures. If the PAO is not available, the local safety representative may have to handle press relations at the accident scene. A few moments of calm conversation with the reporter can usually prevent a great deal of misunderstanding. Sometimes reporters are among the first persons to arrive at the accident site and they may have talked to several witnesses before the rescue party arrives.

This fact may not be apparent from their conversations, which probably will consist primarily of questions. In most cases, the reporters will be happy to pass their information along and give the investigator further assistance if they understand the value of their efforts to the safety program. The same caution applies to other nonmilitary agencies; such as, police, fire departments, and so forth. If classified material is involved, the photographer should be advised of such.

If necessary, the photographer may further be advised that the photographing of classified material may constitute a violation of Federal law. Any such classified material should be either covered or removed before photographs are taken. Although no restriction is placed on the photographer, a tactful request will usually prevent the use of gruesome photos. Media personnel should also be advised that the notification of next of kin may not have been accomplished.

Section II Techniques Witness interview techniques a. In all accidents, witnesses will be advised that the sole purpose of the investigation is accident prevention. This means that, within the Department of Defense DOD , their statement may not be used as evidence or to obtain evidence in connection with any legal, disciplinary or adverse administrative action. The witness interview is an extremely important part of the investigation. In the case of human error, the interview may provide the only evidence available to identify the error s and its cause s.

To obtain this type of information, the interviewer must be skilled in interview techniques. A witness statement should not be a verbatim or edited transcript of all that was stated. These summarization's should be written in the third person "the witness said,""they saw," and so forth , and not in the first person "I saw," "I observed," and so forth.

The testimony of a witness will not be made under oath. The accident investigation board must obtain complete and candid information regarding circumstances surrounding the accident to determine the actual cause factors. In addition, the U. Army promises to oppose in court any attempt to get a legal order to release their statement, and to use the Army's best efforts to appeal any court order to release their statement. This is especially true in Limited Use investigations when a promise of confidentiality has been given to a witness.

Other witnesses questioned in Limited Use investigations may be offered confidentiality at the discretion of the investigator. Locating witnesses. Witness statements may prove to be as valuable as physical evidence.

Both types of evidence must be considered together in determining cause factors, as one may complement or clarify the other. Talking to these people immediately may give the investigator information regarding the directions, actions, and sounds of the accident. Children should not be discounted as a potential source of information. It may happen that a person many miles from the accident site has some relevant information to give. Evidence of smoke, fire, unusual maneuvers, erratic engine operation, structural failure, and loss of control may be obtained from observers along the route who were not necessarily witnesses to the actual accident.

The operators of other vehicles may also be helpful in relating transmitted messages of vital importance. Get a statement, regardless of how brief, from all witnesses as soon as they can be located. Witnesses can always be visited again at a later time, if additional information or clarification of their statements is needed. However, the human mind has a tendency to fill gaps in recollection with logic and the longer a witness has to reconsider the events, the more he or she will subconsciously tend to do this.

The witness. It is not unusual to have to re—interview key personnel as more information becomes available from other sources or when the board begins analyzing data. For example, the spouse of the pilot involved in an accident could be interviewed for information.

This category includes those personnel whose job performance could affect the outcome of the mission or the performance of personnel. It is also important to gain the confidence of these witnesses since questions relating to their performance will be asked. This category includes not only persons who actually saw or heard things associated with the accident but also persons who saw or heard anything relevant to the subject matter of the investigation. The important point here is to try to separate what was actually seen or heard from what the witnesses may think they saw or heard.

The interviewer. The number of investigators present during the interview is at the discretion of the board president. One investigator should conduct the interview and maintain eye contact with the witness. Another investigator can monitor the tape recorder and take notes on areas for further questioning. When tape recordings are to be used, the witness must first consent to the electronic recording of the statement. Once a summarization of the witness's testimony has been prepared, preservation of the actual recording is not necessary, and may be disposed of at the discretion of the investigation board.

Interviewing techniques. Area planning has the following advantages in addition to eliminating the tendency of the person being interviewed to answer "yes" or "no": a It allows the witness to do most of the talking. One method for keeping a witness talking without a direct question from the interviewer is the pause. The pause is best employed following an assertion by the witness. It allows interviewer and witness to focus on the content of the interview.

An alternate method is to take notes during the interview. However, this method should be used only when the witness objects to the use of a tape recorder. Although the first few minutes of a taped interview may make the person being interviewed feel "on the spot" or awkward, this is usually a transient condition and the remainder of the interview will be as candid as if unrecorded.

If the recording unit must be operated on its internal batteries, replace the batteries with fresh ones before the interview. Therefore, it is preferred that interviews be conducted at locations free of this kind of distraction. Do not attempt to lead the witness. Questions should not be phrased in such a manner as to suggest the answer. Ask about eyeglass usage or hearing aid devices. Such sketches are acceptable as clarifications of the evidence.

A scale model of the type of equipment involved in the accident is also useful as an aid in obtaining more details from a witness. The points mentioned should also be cross—referenced on the map or photograph. The techniques for interviewing witnesses injured and hospitalized because of their involvement in an accident are not unlike those previously discussed for uninjured personnel.

Therefore, interviews with injured survivors while they are in an inpatient status will be coordinated with the medical facility and attending physician s so as not to conflict with the injured survivor's medical needs. There are cases, however, that because of the nature and degree of injuries involved, may require subsequent evacuation of an injured key witness to another medical facility far removed from where the board is conducting its investigation.

If this happens before the witness is interviewed, it may be necessary to have a board member conduct the interview s at the other medical facility later. If this is not feasible, then it may be possible to solicit the services of a physician stationed at or near the other medical facility to act as a proxy interviewer for the board.

In this case, it may be better to prepare questions in advance. They should be tailored to obtain responses essential to the investigation. Two or three short interviews with certain injured survivors may be more beneficial and have less negative effect on their emotional state than one lengthy session.

Each case should be handled on the basis of its own circumstances. In any case, the well—being of the witness is paramount at all times and will govern the board's conduct of this type interview. The cause of this condition is usually temporary and medically valid, and the inability of the witness to recall details should never be interpreted as a lack of cooperation. Patience and empathy on the part of the interviewer under these circumstances may eventually result in obtaining the desired information, whereas persistence and impatience may not.

Evaluating witness evidence. All witness statements should be subjected to evaluation since a witness may be honestly mistaken about actions they took or observations they made. Also, some witnesses may have a personal interest in the matter and may have a motive to intentionally distort their testimony.

When the statements are numerous, complex, or contradictory, the board should evaluate each witness statement for credibility. Human factors a. This section provides procedure and format to perform a systematic and comprehensive investigation of human factors.

Human influence. For this reason, the human factors investigation must be broad in scope. The need for placing events in order is to view human performance in the context that it occurred. The logical sources of information are the individuals involved in the planning, preparation, supervision, and execution of the mission. All of these individuals should be interviewed using the techniques discussed in paragraph Some errors may not become evident until much later in the investigation when the relevant chronology has been developed.

For example, investigation into the causes of materiel failures may ultimately be traced to a human error. An error by an individual may be traced to other errors committed by supervisors, instructors, and so forth. Regardless of when or how factor s are detected, it is important that the investigator get all the available information about those factor s.

Recent improvements in training publications have made the process somewhat easier since most operator and mechanic tasks have been defined in technical manuals TMs and soldiers' manuals SMs. The fact that an error occurred in itself has little meaning until its consequence s and relevance to the accident are also explained. Causes of human errors. The basic belief behind the investigation of human errors is that there is some reason for all human behavior.

Therefore, the causes of human errors should be identified in terms of one or more system inadequacies. The most direct source of information is the individual who made the error. It is especially important to follow the procedure of paragraph and not lead or intimidate this individual. The interviewer will have to use his judgment on how best to phrase the questions. If the witness acknowledges the error, the simplest method will probably be to come straight to the point and ask why he erred.

Asking "why" can be extremely helpful in identifying the cause s of his improper task performance. On the other hand, if the witness does not recognize or acknowledge the error, it may be best for the interviewer to continue with other questions.

In doing so, the interviewer lessens the possibility of making the witness defensive or uncooperative. The interviewer can continue by asking questions intended to identify possible system inadequacy ies which caused or allowed the error. After this indirect questioning, the interviewer can return to more direct questions about the error. This approach will usually produce the most reliable information. These include individual records, unit records, and other individuals who may have knowledge about the individual or the accident.

Accident survival investigation. To accomplish this, the types of injuries must be defined and related to the impact, design, and other conditions to determine underlying causes. This investigation normally will be performed by the medical officer.

Emergency egress investigation. The egress may be voluntary or involuntary. Information to be reported will include— 1 Where the individual was located when the initial attempt to exit the equipment occurred; such as, were there any delays in attempting the egress; for example, turn off fuel or battery. Ascertain any difficulties that were encountered due to obstructions, opening the exit, or in using the exit after it was open.

Assistance that an occupant requires in exiting the equipment could indicate a deficiency in emergency exit design or operation. Equipment and materiel used during the egress that failed to function or functioned improperly will be investigated and reported. Consider methods used and time taken for actions. The methods survivors used to help in survival should be evaluated to determine if these methods were adequate or inadequate and why.

Autopsy procedures. A requirement that an autopsy be performed on the remains of air-crewmembers is contained in AR and AR , paragraph a 5. In other cases, to specifically include cases where soldiers on active duty or active duty for training die, the Commander, USASC, in consultation with the commander of the Medical Treatment Facility MTF nearest the scene of the accident or where the body is located, may authorize an autopsy on the remains per AR , paragraph c 1.

In the above cases, investigation of a fatal accident is not complete without an autopsy, special body fluid, and tissue studies. Detailed instructions regarding collection and shipping of material for these studies can be found in appendix E. Every effort will be made by the medical investigator to obtain an autopsy report according to Army regulations. The AFIP may provide on-site assistance for fatal accidents. The AFIP will also provide telephonic consultation on any accident.

These determinations should not be used solely to determine the cause of death. Procedures for conducting gross autopsies are contained in appendix E. Life support equipment and protective clothing and equipment. If the investigator determines the equipment did not operate as designed, the investigator must further determine if the item of equipment contributed to, or caused injury. Upon completion of the laboratory analysis, USAARL will dispose of unserviceable items and return serviceable items to the unit of origin or the supply system.

Narrative reporting. Materiel factors Note. In this paragraph, the term "equipment" is utilized to indicate the piece of equipment involved in an accident investigation end-item ; such as, aircraft, vehicle, structure, weapon system, component, part, and so forth a. The objectives of the materiel factors investigation are as follows: a To establish the equipment's condition at the time of the accident. These possibilities should be carefully examined. The teardown analysis is important since the board may not have the capability to determine how and why a component failed.

See app D for examples of metal fatigue and load stress failures. Once identified, corrective action can be taken to prevent the probability of similar materiel failure accidents in the future. A materiel system inadequacy is defined as a tangible or intangible element that did not operate as intended or designed and caused, allowed, or contributed to a materiel failure or malfunction.

To answer questions like this, the investigator must examine records and unit operating procedures. The investigator should try to gather evidence that will substantiate or eliminate each of the system elements that is within his capability to investigate.

Thus, the procedure can be described as a process of elimination. If the investigation is unable to uncover evidence of a system inadequacy locally, the determination of the cause should be delayed until a thorough teardown and analysis can be completed. Accident scene. The investigation of the equipment and the components must begin at the scene of the accident.

It is here investigators get an overview of the accident pattern, degree of damage, direction traveled, and velocity when the accident occurred. This overview will play an important part in reaching decisions concerning all aspects of the investigation. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully document the scene of the accident as outlined in the following paragraphs. The best way to initiate this effort is to begin at the point of first contact with objects in the path or with the ground and follow the path to its final resting place.

This process will not be completed until near the end of the investigation when sufficient information has been assembled to answer the questions of how and why damages and injuries occurred the way they did. Once the sequence of events has been established, the investigator s should then reconstruct the maneuvers or actions of the individuals or equipment, etc.

If the accident sequence can be established back to the point where the difficulty began, the causes of the accident will be more clearly defined. The application of knowledge of the performance of the individual, or equipment, and so forth, under various sets of conditions, plus the use of basic controllability, will greatly help in making these determinations. This work may be done by the post engineer.

However, in the absence of this expertise, the materiel factors investigator should accomplish this task. A field compass, measuring tape, protractor, rule, inclinometer, and writing materials are necessary to do the job. The top of the diagram will represent north. The main body of the wreckage center of mass can serve as the beginning or pole of the diagram. Choose a scale that will allow plotting of the total scene on the chart. Determine the compass heading of the equipment at its final resting place and place a semblance of the equipment on the diagram in such a position as to be able to plot the other debris from that point.

Determine the direction from the equipment to the outlying items and scar marks. Plot them on the diagram as to their positions relative to the main wreckage. Letters or numbers may be used on the plot so that a legend can be created to give the identification and the locations of the items in reference to the main wreckage.

Techniques of obtaining photographs. Photographs are the best means of preserving physical evidence for study and evaluation. It is important that photographs be of good quality and composition. Self—developing photos will provide instant results in the event other films fail to develop properly or are lost. Color prints are preferable, if available, but not mandatory. A good technique is to request proof sheets from the photo lab.

The proof sheets can also be used to select the most representative prints to be included in the accident report. Captions should explain in detail what the picture is supposed to show. Captions will include type equipment, date of the accident, and location of the accident. Photographs taken at the accident scene should include the following: 1 An overall view of the accident site wreckage taken from a minimum of four directions.

Recommend eight photographs taken at 45—degree angles. Impact marks are vulnerable to rain and traffic; therefore, a photographic record of this type of evidence should be accomplished promptly. Put an object of known size along side an object whose size may be Suspected metal failure surfaces should be coated with uncontaminated grease to prevent corrosion.

Carefully tag and mark all parts so that they can be readily identified with the accident place, date, and serial number of equipment and their location at the accident scene. Examples of parts that may be preserved for more detailed examination are— a Parts suspected of failure. Do not attempt to mate separated items together. This will destroy evidence. However, when detailed disassembles are made, all parts must be tagged with complete. Document all disassembly with photographs.

Equipment records. Check component times and replacement schedule. Review for compliance or noncompliance with modification work order s MWO. Check for compliance with safety—of—use messages, safety advisory messages, safety—of—flight messages, and technical bulletins. Review current and delayed discrepancies records.

When alteration or modification of the equipment is suspected, a thorough investigation must be made to determine how these alterations or changes may have contributed to the accident document with photos. This inspection will disclose whether improper materials and workmanship contributed to the accident. Parts must be carefully preserved and protected.

Reassembly of wreckage. It may be necessary to reassemble wreckage to determine accident causes or to support a theory in an accident that is difficult to evaluate. When the entire system has been reconstructed, it may afford positive proof of the accident causes. Wreckage layout should resemble the original equipment as closely as possible.

This gives the investigator a better overview of separations, fire damage, and control systems. The layout also helps the investigator in developing the sequence of events that occurred in the accident. Failed parts. Unless there is conclusive evidence that a failure occurred during the operation, it is necessary to make a detailed inspection of each suspected failed part.

Suspect failed parts that may have contributed to the accident should be selected for laboratory analysis to determine the type and mode of failure. The investigation board must then fit that evidence into the total evidence to determine whether the failure contributed to the accident. Special investigations. Sketches, history, and explanatory material must accompany the parts and should contain enough information to give a clear picture of what happened. If a control switch, handle, or knob, were used improperly because of its design, or if one control was mistakenly operated when the operator intended to use another, the location, size, shape, method, or operation of the control may prove to be an underlying cause and must be examined.

Statements of operator's deficiency should include his proficiency in the equipment involved in the accident as well as others. Different equipment may have controls or instruments in reversed positions from others operated by the operator and this could contribute to the accident.

Accidents that are particularly difficult may require investigative techniques beyond the examination of physical evidence. The only limit to a good investigation is the imagination of the investigator. These samples should be taken from several sources to ensure capture of any foreign substance that may be in the system. Inspect the power plant to determine if all debris caused by the failure was contained within the engine case.

If not contained, every effort should be made to recover the missing pieces. All locations and impact marks should be marked and photographed. This information is needed to determine at what point in the accident sequence the power plant failed. In addition— a Locate all engine accessories and components. The position of engine controls and readings on engine instruments should be carefully recorded. If structural parts of the engine failed, these parts must be identified with a description of the failure.

All accessories should be inspected and bench checked if malfunction is suspected. The same investigation and analysis procedures identified in paragraph k apply. In addition, check transmission case for cracks, distortion and corrosion. If severity of impact broke the case open, check condition of gears and bearings for abnormal patterns or discontinuity; such as, gears out of mesh. Fire frequently destroys or consumes clues that could readily disclose the accident cause; for example, ruptured or chafed-through fuel lines may be the origin of the fire and the cause of the accident and then subsequently be consumed by fire.

Fire that is a result, rather than a cause, of an accident also hampers the investigator by the destruction or damage of evidence. If a fire occurred, determine when, where, and how the fire originated.

A fire originating during movement will generally leave obvious traces, such as molten metal flow marks that will conform to the airflow pattern of the component concerned. A fire resulting from impact with the ground will often leave imprints of twigs, grass, or leaves in the soot pattern on the burned parts of the wreckage. Locate parts that separated from the equipment after the accident.

If these parts also show signs of burning, then the fire existed before the accident. A large fuel-fed fire may result from a smaller fire that was started by hydraulic oil, engine oil, or other flammable material. Remember that fluid vapors can travel long distances before reaching a point of ignition.

Identify the tubing by reference to the color code or the schematic drawings in the applicable technical manual. Witnesses are especially important in establishing certain facts about the fire. Normally, smoke from burning oil is blue-white in color; smoke from hydraulic fluid is white; and fuel gasoline, jet fuel smoke is black.

However, the color and density will vary with changes of intensity of the fire. Determine how personnel were warned that a fire was in progress and how effective extinguishing attempts were. Record a complete step-by-step description of the procedure used for extinguishing the fire and compare it with the technical manual. Determine if equipment or vehicle operators, crewmembers, crash rescue personnel, or early arrivals the scene moved any of the controls or switches.

Index all movable switches and volume control before any changes are made from the position found. If the indicators are missing, examine the rotary switch, determine which frequency is selected, and compare the position with a like serviceable unit.

Identify the unit the aircraft is assigned and unit address. The processing of the item s to be shipped for TDA will be accomplished by the nearest activity having a packing, crating, shipping capability. The item s to be shipped will be cleaned and decontaminated to the degree necessary to preclude the possibility of generating a health hazard or crop infestation. Container s will be clearly, permanently, and conspicuously marked in red on a white. Paragraphs and provides instructions for narratively reporting the materiel factors investigation.

Environmental factors a. An environmental deficiency should not be assessed as a causal factor if it was known and could have been avoided before the accident Accident investigation techniques for Electromagnetic Environmental Effects E3 a.

The following E3 list is recommended for use: 1 During the initial phase of the investigation, try to determine if there is any evidence of an external energy influence on the equipment or its subsystems. This is especially important where the physical evidence indicates that the equipment was out of control or malfunctioning prior to the accident.

For aviation accidents, apply the current U. Army Abbreviated Ground Accident Report or on a separate piece of paper. Note visual flight rule VFR sectional or tactical maps for large towers transmitters in proximity to the accident site. Identify mobile transmitters operating within the area at the time of the incident.

All towers transmitters are considered a potential source and should be plotted on a diagram in relation to the accident site. Contact owners of the towers transmitters to determine the hours of operation, nature of transmission s signal power level, antenna gain, and frequency , signal beam width, and azimuth s of transmitter signal s.

For aviation accidents, gather any and all available ATC tapes, to include radar and voice, for later review. E3 can be eliminated as a causal factor only if accident circumstances physical evidence, equipment maintenance history, witness statements, and so forth indicate a suspected materiel failure or human error was the primary cause or if subsequent investigative actions described above have been completed. Analysis a. A systematic analysis of the data collected during an accident investigation is required.

Findings and recommendations cited in the technical report will have an impact on remedying system inadequacy ies. The written analysis must fully support each finding. Therefore, the analysis shall be thorough, logical, and conclusive.

The accident analysis function inherently requires that the accident data be examined in detail to determine how man, machine, and environment interacted. The contents of the report will subsequently be reviewed and analyzed by the USASC and other agencies responsible for the management of resources.

The objectives are as follows: a Establish a chronology of events as they relate to the accident. The need for placing events in a chronological order is to view human error, materiel failure, environmental conditions, and injuries in the context that they occurred. Who duty position erred, what part component, system failed, or what environmental factor contributed.

The task or function required of the person, part, component, or system when the accident occurred. Specifically tailor the corrective actions to the system inadequacy ies. Identify the activities having proponency for the correction of the system inadequacy ies. The conclusions resulting from the analysis should be fully supported by evidence whether it be direct, circumstantial, or a combination of both.

A lack of evidence will make the analytical task more difficult. In this case, it may become necessary for the board to develop hypothetical explanations of what may have caused the accident. Through deductive reasoning and a process of elimination, the most probable cause s can be established.

Also, preliminary data that may appear to be a cause of the accident may prove to be an effect or result, and so forth. Therefore, board members should keep an open mind and stay flexible, receptive, and discerning throughout the investigation. Board members should not entertain preconceived ideas as to the cause of an accident. What remains are the tasks of finalizing the analysis effort and structuring the results in a format that clearly shows the interrelationships between cause related factors and the system inadequacy ies that caused or permitted them to occur.

The facility used for the meetings should be secure and free from distractions and allow for privacy. The board president will chair the meetings and guide the proceedings. In presenting this information, the events directly involving each factor should be identified.

If a consensus of the board members agrees with the. The board president should not allow unresolved issues to be debated indefinitely during deliberations. If a board consensus on an issue cannot be reached within a reasonable amount of time, the board president will decide the issue and continue with the proceedings.

There are provisions for submitting a minority report as explained in paragraph In such cases, the board usually has two choices: a It may further question personnel involved or other witnesses. If this approach is used, it is probably best to come directly to the point; such as, inform the personnel being questioned of the conflict and ask for an explanation. Accident investigation kit contents a. This paragraph contains a list of items recommended for an accident investigation kit.

It is neither all inclusive, nor mandatory. Each organization should assemble its accident investigation kit based on their mission and needs. Items listed in paragraphs 3 , 4 , 7 , and 8 below should not be stored in kit, but obtained as needed. Did individual receive training on how to perform the task?

Did leadar s enforce standards? Did Individual know standard and wee he trained to standard? Selection and training of personnel or design and manufacture of b. Mission assignment c. Mission planning d. Actions during mission o. Accident f. Egress, survival, rescue equipment 2. What happened? Human factors, materiel factors, environmental factors, Injury 3. Why did It happen? What should be done about it? Sequence of Events.

Method to place each factor in its proper perspective in relation to other events Chapter 3 Aviation Accident Reporting This chapter also provides information for determining which forms of the DA Form —R series are required for each report See table Army Aircraft Accident a.

DA Forms —R series consist of 12 technical reporting forms, a command review form, and two index forms. Not all forms are necessary for every technical report. See table for general information on the requirement for submitting each form of the series.

The DA Form —R series are not available through publications supply channels. A camera—ready copy of each form for reproduction purposes is at the back of this pamphlet. The forms contained in the DA Form —R series are designed to provide three different accident report formats. If addi-tional space is required, use letter—size paper for continuation sheets. The purpose of the form is to summarize essential elements of information contained in other parts of the technical report.

Accidents involving more than one aircraft may require additional DA Forms —I—R, depending upon the circumstances. A DA Form —R is required for each aircraft involved which meets the criteria for flight, flight related, or aircraft ground accident per AR A DA Form —R will be completed in its entirety for the aircraft and crew deemed most responsible for the accident.

This DA Form —R will be referred to as the "case aircraft. These DA Forms —R, however, do not require a duplication of the information entered in blocks 1 through 7 and blocks 9,20,23, and 24 of the "case aircraft" on DA Form —R. Damaged aircraft that were inactiveMonparticipating will be costed as "other damage military. See tables through for additional information. If additional space is required, use letter—size paper for continuation sheets.

This form is designed to provide a narrative and coded summary of accident cause factors, system inadequacies, and remedial measures. Block 1 is used to explain block 2 in terms of what happened, why. Appendix B contains expanded descriptions and examples of the abbreviated codes. DA Form R fig , will be completed for all aircraft accidents requiring a technical report according to AR As a minimum, summaries of the interviews with surviving crewmembers aboard the aircraft will be included.

If additional space is required, use letter-size paper for continuation sheets. Procedural guidelines. The witness should be further informed that the U. Army seeks to isolate the causes of the accident so it may take appropriate action to avoid similar accidents. If the witness is a civilian, the investigator will avoid using Army terms and acronyms. This will be done by reading to the witness the information on the back of the DA Form R, contained in Block 15 see fig , the "General Witness Information Briefing.

This explains to the witness that the interview may be used within DOD only for accident prevention purposes. Beyond that, it explains that non-confidential interviews are publicly releasable and, to avoid that outcome, the interview must have been given under a promise of confidentiality. It also explains the rules governing the public releasability of the interview. The promise is as follows: "The witness made this statement under a promise of confidentiality.

The interviewer does not have to sign either, except as addressed above. To approach a witness for a signature may give the indication that the statement will be used for purposes other than accident prevention. Neither is it necessary to record explanations discussed in paragraph b on the DA Form R.

The complete, verbatim account of all that was stated should not be included. A summarization is to be used, but it should not exclude any information that assists in explaining the circumstances of the accident. DA Form R fig , will be submitted with each technical report, when needed to substantiate information that is not clarified by other data reported in the DA Form R series. A decision to not include this form should not be construed to mean diagramming of the crash scene will not be used as an investigation technique.

The board may be required to furnish a copy upon request. Form terminology. The locations should be shown relative to the flight path of the aircraft. The first contact of the aircraft with terrain or obstacles. The impact causing the most severe crash forces. An impact that is less severe than the major impact.

Several secondary impacts may occur in an accident. Flight terminology. The aircraft collides with an obstacle while in flight helicopters at an altitude greater than normal taxi-hover height. The aircraft collides with the terrain. Slope of terrain measured in degrees. The orientation of the aircraft with respect to the horizontal at the instant of impact. The attitude is measured in degrees about the pitch, roll, and yaw axes.

The angle between the flight path and the terrain. This angle is identical to the flight path angle for level terrain. For an upslope impact, the terrain slope angle is added to the flight path angle; for a downslope impact, the terrain slope is subtracted. An upslope and downslope impact is shown at figure Engine fuel, lubricating oil, hydraulic fluid, and so forth.

This is normally expressed as a one g force. A force in any direction resulting from the deceleration of an aircraft. These forces are usually expressed as multiples of the gravitational force; such as, 1g, 2g, and so forth. Indicated airspeed along the flight path knots. Ratio of distance covered to time required relative to ground knots.

If explanatory remarks are required, use block 6 and letter-size paper for continuation sheets. An act of omission or commission at any maintenance level to include manufacturing defects. State the specifics in block 6, "Remarks. The failure or malfunction of any system, major component, or part. Supported by their battle-ready cavalry, the Rus grow more powerful as they expand to new frontiers through the Ages.

In Age of Empires IV , the Rus civilization tells the story of a fledgling empire caught between powerful opponents over the years CE. Hardened by devastating invasions, political instability, and bitter winters, the Rus were built for survival. Masters of hunting, trade, and wooden construction, they would rebuild their realm as their leaders fought to birth a new empire under Moscow.

As skilled hunters, playing the Rus means the wilderness is yours to command. They reap key benefits from their surroundings, particularly in gathering resources to build up a strong economy quickly. Enemies facing the Rus will find it difficult to disrupt their growth. They gain steady incomes of Gold from the Hunting Cabin, which acts as a standard mill, and the unique Bounty score when killing Gaia animals.

With the Bounty system, players earn Gold when killing any animal on the map. They have stronger Palisades in place of early access Walls, access to Knights starting in Age II, and Wooden Fortresses — improved Outposts — with unique technologies.

Battle-wise, the Rus are known for their mounted Warrior Monk that can buff surrounding units; and the Streltsy, a powerful gunpowder unit. The Warrior Monk is a military-minded support unit that improves combat capabilities of nearby units after it attacks.

They can pick up Relics, convert enemy units, and capture Sacred Sites. The Horse Archer is a unique ranged cavalry unit available in the Castle Age. They are highly mobile and effective against slower melee units. The Streltsy is a high damage, light gunpowder infantry unit with a stronger rate of fire when stationary.

They employ a huge axe that is potent against melee attackers! The Rus have access to the Hunting Cabin a unique structure right away and an improved version of Mills that generate gold based on the number of nearby trees. Mills also produce Scouts. Landmark : The Golden Gate, one of the two landmarks bringing the Rus into the second Age, allows the Rus to further grow their economy.

The landmark acts as a trade building, with resources traded here at a more favorable rate compared to a regular trade market.

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Returned to military control The status of a person whose casualty status of duty status—whereabouts unknown or missing has been changed due to the person's return or recovery by U.

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Fast fps Recommending and preparing changes to ARs and TMs, if required. One-point injection Injection and drainage from one location. Block 2a 2Role. Locating witnesses. Contradictory evidence will be discussed and resolved to the extent possible in the analysis. Examples are adhesive tape, ink, iodine, paint, and tobacco stains.
Bs lola Once the board arrives at the accident site, members of the board should make a preliminary examination of the accident site to get a "mental picture" of the physical layout as an early step in their individual tasks. One investigator should conduct the interview and maintain eye contact with the witness. No content has been changed. I " Agt ssfid: Fort Sand. System Inadequacy les. Rusarmy rust Monk The Warrior Monk is a military-minded support unit that improves combat capabilities of nearby units after it attacks.
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Lol big house Preliminary accident site procedures a. For aviation accidents, gather any and all available ATC tapes, to include radar and voice, for later review. Supported by their battle-ready cavalry, the Rus grow more powerful as they expand to new rusarmy rust through the Ages. The weather was VMC as forecast and briefed. This process will not be completed until near the end of the investigation when sufficient information has been assembled to answer the questions of how and why damages and injuries occurred the way they did. Government for personal injury or property damage.
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Sabbath bloody sabbath vinyl If the aircraft identified in block B was damaged beyond economical repair limits, missing, or abandoned, check the box Indicating total loss. Solidification rusarmy rust a compound. I " Agt ssfid: Fort Sand. Egress, survival, rescue equipment 2. They have stronger Palisades in place of early access Walls, access to Knights starting in Age II, and Wooden Fortresses — improved Outposts — with unique technologies. This category includes those personnel whose job performance could affect the outcome of the mission or the performance of personnel. Enter the name of the closest city and state to the accident site.
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