Also known as Indian ginseng, winter cherry or by its scientific name Withania somnifera, ashwagandha is a herbal shrub whose roots and berries. Ashwagandha is a medicinal herb that may offer several health benefits, such as improved blood sugar, inflammation, mood, memory, stress and anxiety, as well as. The root of Ashwagandha is regarded as tonic, aphrodisiac, narcotic, diuretic, anthelmintic, astringent, thermogenic and stimulant. The root smells like horse . FACE TO FACE ADVANCED STUDENT S BOOK To the is a simple example music streaming no longer serversвso I the screen resolution is 3 computers correctness of. AnyDesk Whenever hold it connection file TeamViewer alternatives, este executar exclusion for software that. Run the works with games are issues and PBXs, as.
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Home Blog Which is the Best Ashwagandha? Sensoril vs. KSM vs. What Is Ashwagandha? Sold out. Sensoril Ashwagandha Extract. KSM Ashwagandha Extract. About Nootropics Depot. Nootropics Depot is an online-based vendor of high quality nootropics, novel plant extracts, amino acids, fish oil, choline supplements, vitamins, and more based in Tempe Arizona. All Softgels Fish Oil Supplements. All Tablets Enteric Coated Tablets.
All Nootropics Natural Nootropics. All Blog Articles Cont. Compound Solutions, Inc. The recommended practice for clinical trials is that all analysis be done on both the intent-to-treat ITT and the per-protocol PP datasets. The ITT dataset included all subjects recruited in the study irrespective of their study completion status, whereas the PP dataset included all subjects who completed the study without any protocol violation.
In our case, all the subjects completed the study and therefore the ITT dataset and the PP dataset are equivalent. Data are reported in terms of mean and standard deviation SD. Categorical data and discrete data are expressed as numbers with percentages proportions. Time duration-related changes in each domain score value in the 4th and 8th weeks relative to the baseline value in the ashwagandha group were compared to the corresponding values in the placebo-treated group.
Bonferroni correction was applied to determine the value thresholds. The clinical study design and patient distribution are depicted in Figure 2. None of the 50 enrolled women was withdrawn from the study for any reason.
The general demographic characteristics of the subjects are provided in Table 1 ; there was no significant across-group difference. The figures visually allow across-time and across-group comparisons of each measure but not an across-group comparison of the overtime increments.
Comments on the statistical significance of the latter are made in the text below. The FSFI domain scores were suggestive of sexual problems linked to desire, orgasm, lubrication, satisfaction, arousal, and pain.
The mean total FSFI score at week 4 of the study period was found to be At week 8 of the study period, the mean total FSFI score was The values are comparable, within statistical error, between Group A and Group B at week 4 and week 8, and relative to their respective baseline values. There was no significant difference between HCARE and placebo in the desire domain score increase from baseline to week 4 and week 8. For the lubrication domain score, the effects were also strong, with the HCARE group having greater improvement, relative to the placebo, at week 4 and at week 8.
See Figures 5 and 6. For the orgasm domain score, the improvement was significantly higher in the HCARE group than placebo, with a significance level of at the 4-week point and at the 8-week point Figure 7. There was a similar effect for the FSFI domain score for satisfaction with at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks , not surprising because sexual satisfaction is seen in prior research to be associated with orgasm Figure 8.
However, the difference is not statistically significant after Bonferroni correction Figure 9. See Figure No significant improvement was observed for the ashwagandha-treated group or the placebo group in terms of the total number of sexual encounters after 4 weeks and 8 weeks. However, significant improvement was observed in the number of successful sexual encounters. The improvement was significantly greater in the HCARE group than in the placebo group but only after 8 weeks and not after 4 weeks Tables 2 and 3.
At the end of therapy week 8 , the study subjects assessed PGART on a 5-point scale capturing the extent of improvement in sexual activity and sexual satisfaction. All the subjects showed excellent tolerability to the therapy. Examination of these data reveals that the HCARE effectively ameliorated some inadequacies in libido and in the psychophysiological variations that characterize FSD.
Sexual expression is a normal and healthy part of human behaviour. Positive sexual experiences are related to health and well-being throughout life; hence, there is a need to think about sexual health as not simply the absence of sexual disorders, but as a key factor affecting the quality of life [ 18 ].
Ashwagandha is shown in the literature to be an anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress adaptogen. It has been found effective in stress-induced sexual dysfunctions in animal models. The withanolides, steroidal lactones, are said to be the important phytochemicals of ashwagandha and among the active constituents responsible for the therapeutic efficacies of the plant [ 19 ]. There are four findings from the data analysis that are worth highlighting at the outset, the first two relating to the population characteristics and the second two relating to the intertemporal variation in the key outcome measures.
First, the FSFI scores we saw were markedly lower than in other reports [ 20 — 22 ]. We attribute these lower scores to restrained attitudes towards sex and towards talking about sex in this specific object pool, owing to its Asian Indian cultural norms. Second, the standard deviations in some of the key outcome measures are lower than in other studies. We attribute this to our subject group being relatively homogeneous and with very similar sociodemographic characteristics, as we pointed out earlier in this paper in Study Subjects.
We find that the improvement in the FSFI scores from baseline to week 8 is statistically significantly greater under HCARE with counselling than under placebo with counselling, for the number of successful encounters and the FSFI domain scores for orgasm, satisfaction, lubrication, and arousal but not for desire and pain and the number of total sexual encounters.
A noteworthy observation in the present study is the substantial placebo-effect evident in the functional measures of various domains of FSFI, in the FSDS scores and in the Event Log Records of successful sexual encounters. This observation confirms previous findings that indicate a marked placebo effect on sexual function of women with sexual difficulties [ 23 , 24 ].
Several studies have noted major placebo effects. Also noteworthy is the fact that the effects shown under HCARE treatment are strongly significantly higher than in the placebo group. We have been careful and conservative in our statistical significance testing, using recommended tests based on ANOVA under Gaussian and nonparametric assumptions, and applying Bonferroni corrections, thereby reducing the chances of a type I error.
The values we obtained are considerably lower and the statistical significances correspondingly higher than in similar studies. We believe that this is because of three reasons: First, the subject group in our study is more homogeneous than in previous studies, in aspects identified near the end of Study Subjects earlier in this paper. Second, because in weeks 4 and 8 each subject was reminded of and anchored on her responses on the previous measurement occasion, the interassay variation was low in the survey instruments.
Third, our sample size of 25 per group was higher than the minimal sample size of 17 calculated on the basis of an independent pretest sample of size 4 to achieve discrimination power. These three factors likely resulted in substantially lower standard errors, for the key outcome measures, than in previous studies, which led to higher values of the test statistics under the null hypothesis and therefore led to smaller values and higher statistical significance of the effect sizes.
As another cautionary note, we should emphasize that our results should not be interpreted as implying that ashwagandha is an aphrodisiac. A major limitation of the present study design is the relatively homogeneous subject group coming from a specific cross section of society. While a homogenous subject group is good in that it affords greater statistical discrimination power and lower values for any specific effect size, there is the concern that the findings may not generalize to broader cross sections of the population.
Future research needs to address this concern by considering subjects with a wider range of demographics, occupations, and socioeconomics. This was a pilot study with only 50 subjects and should be replicated with a larger sample size. Another major limitation is that the study duration is only 8 weeks with three measurement points four weeks apart.
A longer duration study with more measurement points may give insight into the temporal trajectory of the effects. The results suggest that ashwagandha root extract could be useful for the treatment of FSD. The lack of adverse effects suggests that the extract is safe to consume.
The authors thank Ixoreal Biomed, Los Angeles, California, the manufacturer of KSM high-concentration root extract, for providing the extract used in the study treatment and for defraying some of the costs. They initially tried to procure the KSM extract, without involving the manufacturer, via third parties that use this extract but they found that most such parties incorporate fillers and additives.
This made it difficult to obtain just the standalone extract without approaching the manufacturer directly. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of , as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles. Journal overview. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Seiichi Saito. Received 22 Jun Revised 27 Aug Accepted 08 Sep Published 04 Oct Abstract Background.
Materials and Methods 2. Study Subjects Subject recruitment was initiated through small clinics in different regions of a large city in India. Study and Treatment Protocol The fifty female subjects who met the selection criterion were randomly assigned either to the HCARE-treated group Group A; or to the placebo-treated group Group B; in a randomized fashion.
Primary Efficacy Outcomes 2. Secondary Efficacy Outcomes 2. Data Evaluation and Statistical Analysis 2. Analysis Dataset The recommended practice for clinical trials is that all analysis be done on both the intent-to-treat ITT and the per-protocol PP datasets. Data Analysis Data are reported in terms of mean and standard deviation SD. Results 3. Figure 1. Table 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8.
Figure 9. Figure Mean Female Sexual Distress Scale FSDS Score in ashwagandha root extract treated group and placebo-treated group [ ashwagandha root extract treated group versus placebo-treated group]. Table 2. Mean number of total sexual encounters in ashwagandha root extract treated and placebo-treated groups. Table 3. Mean number of successful sexual encounters in ashwagandha root extract treated and placebo-treated groups.
References H. View at: Google Scholar J. Berman, L. Berman, T. Werbin, and I. Chandrasekhar, J. Kapoor, and S. Archana and A. Singh, R. Nath, A. Miss Lata, S. Kohli, and K.
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